Accurate estimation of gas exchange parameters has always been a fundamental aim of plant physiologists; from the more general assumptions and calculations presented by Moss and Rawlins (1963) up to the widely used model introduced by von Caemmerer and Farquhar (1981).
Individuals can benefit by varying their investment in offspring. The optimal amount of investment may vary in relation to both climatic conditions and social conditions (such as the number of carers for the offspring).
Why do organisms look the way they do? Why do they live where they do? Wy are some groups more diverse than others? These basic questions are often addressed at different scales using a particular set of methods.