The malaria parasite is a single-celled microorganism which invades the red blood cells of its host. Malaria remains a major infectious disease in many parts of the world, causing over 200 million cases and 0.5-1.2 million deaths per year. Moreover, malaria imposes horrendous economic burdens upon afflicted countries. An effective vaccine remains elusive and reliance on chemotherapy is under serious threat with the emergence of parasites that are resistant to most, if not all, of the antimalarial drugs available.
We use a combination of biochemistry, chemistry, molecular biology, and bioinformatic techniques to study:
Open to students
Design and evaluation of novel antimalarial drugs (Undergraduate, Summer scholar course, Honours, Masters coursework & research, Higher degree by research)
Drug resistance in the human malaria parasite (Undergraduate, Summer scholar course, Honours, Masters coursework & research, Higher degree by research)
Identification and characterisation of membrane transport proteins (Undergraduate, Summer scholar course, Honours, Masters coursework & research, Higher degree by research)
Membrane transport proteins of the malaria parasite and their roles in conferring drug resistance (Undergraduate, Summer scholar course, Honours, Masters coursework & research, Higher degree by research)
van Schalkwyk DA1, Nash MN1, Shafik SH1, Summers RL, Lehane AM, Smith PJ and Martin RE (2015). Verapamil-sensitive transport of quinacrine and methylene blue via mutant PfCRT reduces the malaria parasite's susceptibility to these tricyclic drugs. Journal of Infectious Diseases, in press. [1: Joint first authors]
Pulcini S, Staines HM, Lee AH, Shafik SH, Bouyer G, Moore CM, Daley DA, Hoke MJ, Altenhofen LM, Painter HJ, Mu J, Llinás M, Ferguson DJP, Martin RE, Fidock DA, Cooper RA and Krishna S (2015). Mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter, PfCRT, enlarge the parasite's food vacuole and alter drug sensitivities. Scientific Reports, 5: 14552. Open access
Marchetti RV, Lehane AM, Shafik SH, Winterberg M, Martin RE and Kirk K (2015). A lactate and formate transporter in the intraerythrocytic malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Nature Communications, 6: Article 6721. Open access
Bellanca S, Summers RL, Meyrath M, Dave A, Nash MN, Dittmer M, Sanchez CP, Stein WD, Martin RE1, and Lanzer M1 (2014). Multiple drugs compete for transport via the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter at distinct but interdependent sites. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 289: 36336-51. [1: Joint senior authors] Open access
Teng R1, Lehane AM1, Winterberg M, Shafik SH, Summers RL, Martin RE, van Schalkwyk DA, Junankar PR, Kirk K (2014). 1H NMR metabolite profiles of different strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Bioscience Reports, 34: art:e00150. [1: Joint first authors] Open access
Summers RL1, Dave A1, Dolstra TJ, Bellanca S, Marchetti RV, Nash MN, Richards SN, Goh V, Schenk RL, Stein WD, Kirk K, Sanchez CP, Lanzer M2, and Martin RE2 (2014). Diverse mutational pathways converge on saturable chloroquine transport via the malaria parasite’s chloroquine resistance transporter. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 111: E1759-67. [1, 2: Equal contributions] Open access
Deane KJ1, Summers RL1, Lehane AM, Martin RE2, and Barrow RA2 (2014). Chlorpheniramine analogues reverse chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum by inhibiting PfCRT. ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 5: 576-81 [1, 2: Equal contributions]
Hrycyna CA1, Summers RL1, Lehane AM1, Pires MM, Namanja H, Bohn K, Kuriakose J, Ferdig M, Henrich PP, Fidock DA, Kirk K, Chmielewski J2, and Martin RE2 (2013). Quinine dimers are potent inhibitors of the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter and are active against quinoline-resistant P. falciparum. ACS Chemical Biology, 9:722-30 [1, 2: Equal contributions] Open access
Gemma S, Camodeca C, Brindisi M, Brogi S, Kukreja G, Kunjir S, Gabellieri E, Lucantoni L, Habluetzel A, Taramelli D, Basilico N, Gualdani R, Tadini-Buoninsegni F, Bartolommei G, Moncelli MR, Martin RE, Summers RL, Lamponi S, Savini L, Fiorini I, Valoti M, Novellino E, Campiani G, and Butini S (2012). Mimicking the intramolecular hydrogen Bond: synthesis, biological evaluation, and molecular modeling of benzoxazines and quinazolines as potential antimalarial agents. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 55: 10387-10404.
Gemma S, Camodeca C, Sanna Coccone S, Joshi BP, Bernetti M, Moretti V, Brogi S, Bonache MC, Savini L, Taramelli D, Basilico N, Parapini S, Rottmann M, Brun R, Lamponi S, Caccia S, Guiso G, Summers RL, Martin RE, Saponara S, Gorelli B, Novellino E, Campiani G, and Butini S (2012). Optimization of 4-aminoquinoline/clotrimazole-based hybrid antimalarials: further structure-activity relationships, in vivo studies, and preliminary toxicity profiling. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 55: 6948-67.
Martin RE, Butterworth A, Gardiner D, Kirk K, McCarthy JS, and Skinner-Adams TS (2012). Saquinavir inhibits the malaria parasite's chloroquine resistance transporter. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 56: 2283-9. Open access
Summers, RL, Nash MN, and Martin RE (2012). Know your enemy: Understanding the role of PfCRT in drug resistance could lead to new antimalarial tactics. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 69, 1967-95.
Zishiri VK, Joshi MC, Hunter R, Chibale K, Smith PJ, Summers RL, Martin RE, and Egan TJ (2011). Quinoline antimalarials containing a dibemethin group are active against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum and inhibit chloroquine transport via the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 54, 6956-68.
Zishiri VK, Hunter R, Smith PJ, Taylor D, Summers RL, Kirk K, Martin RE, and Egan TJ (2011). A series of structurally simple chloroquine chemosensitizing dibemethin derivatives that inhibit chloroquine transport by PfCRT. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 46: 1729-42.
Cobbold SA, Martin RE and Kirk K (2011). Methionine transport in the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. International Journal of Parasitology, 41: 125-135.
Summers, RL and Martin RE (2010). Functional characteristics of the malaria parasite’s ‘chloroquine resistance transporter’: implications for chemotherapy. Virulence, 1, 304-08. Open access
Martin RE, Ginsburg H and Kirk K (2009). Membrane transport proteins of the malaria parasite. Molecular Microbiology, 74: 519-528.
Martin RE, Marchetti RV, Cowan AI, Howitt SM, Bröer S, and Kirk K (2009). Chloroquine transport via the malaria parasite’s ‘Chloroquine Resistance Transporter’. Science, 325, 1680-82. Commentaries: (i) Nelson, N (2009) Faculty of 1000, article 1165434a, (ii) Sibley, LD (2009) Faculty of 1000, article 1165434b, and (iii) This week in Science (2009) Science, 325: 1596-7.
Henry RI, Martin RE, Howitt SM and Kirk K (2007). Localisation of a candidate anion transporter to the surface of the malaria parasite. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 363: 288-291.
Saliba KJ1, Martin RE1, Bröer A, Henry RI, McCarthy CS, Downie MJ, Allen RJW, Mullin KA, McFadden GI, Bröer S2, and Kirk K2 (2006). Na+-dependent uptake of an essential nutrient by the intracellular malaria parasite. Nature, 443: 582-85. [1, 2: Equal contributions] Commentary: Merzendorfer H. (2007) J Exp Biol, 210: v-vi.
Bray PG1, Martin RE1, Tilley L, Ward SA, Kirk K, and Fidock DA (2005). Defining the role of PfCRT in P. falciparum chloroquine resistance. Molecular Microbiology, 56: 323-33. [1: Joint first authors]
Martin RE, Henry RI, Abbey JL, Clements JD, and Kirk K (2005). The ‘permeome’ of the malaria parasite: an overview of the membrane transport proteins of Plasmodium falciparum. Genome Biology, 6: R26. Open access
Kirk K, Martin RE, Bröer S, Howitt SM and Saliba KJ (2005). Plasmodium Permeomics: Membrane transport proteins in the malaria parasite. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology: Malaria (S. Krishna and D. Sullivan, eds), 295: 325-356.
Martin RE and Kirk K (2004). The malaria parasite's chloroquine resistance transporter is a member of the drug/metabolite transporter superfamily. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 21: 1938-49. Commentaries: (i) Egan TJ. (2004) Drug Discovery Today, 9: 814-815 and (ii) Hughes A. (2004) Faculty of 1000, article 15240840
Clements JD and Martin RE (2002). Identification of novel membrane proteins by searching for patterns in hydropathy profiles. FEBS Journal, 269: 2101-07.
Saliba KJ, Martin RE, Staines HM, and Kirk K (1999). A novel anion channel in the malaria-infected erythrocyte: opportunities for antimalarial chemotherapy, in Chloride Channels (RZ Kozlowski, ed), Isis Medical Media, pp 137‐48.
Kirk K, Staines HM, Martin RE, and Saliba KJ (1999). Transport properties of the host cell membrane, in Transport and Trafficking in the Malaria‐Infected Erythrocyte, Wiley, Chichester (Novartis Foundation Symposium 226), pp 55‐73.