Efficient monitoring and management of species biodiversity requires sensitive and reliable detection tools. In recent years, the analyses of DNA extracted from environmental samples (eDNA) has been proposed as a highly sensitivity monitoring tool. While a large body of literature supports the higher detection sensitivity of eDNA-based monitoring, compared to conventional methods, only few examples are available in which eDNA surveys have been used to inform and support conservation efforts. During this seminar I will present the results of my PhD research, which focussed on the freshwater fish biodiversity in the Murray-Darling Basin. I will show, through some case studies, how eDNA monitoring can improve the management of both native and invasive fish species.